Sunday, October 10, 2004

Lesson 15 and Review

ATOMS, ELEMENTS, BOHR-RUTHERFORD DIAGRAMS AND REVIEW

Atoms:
We are currently investigating the properties of ATOMS and subatomic particles (protons, neutrons and electrons)

Recall that the basic particle discussed earlier in the unit was the atom. Look at your "Introduction to Atomic Particles note-taking sheet" that we did on the overhead in class.

Bohr-Rutherford Diagram
Reveiw information about protons, neutrons, electrons, and their arrangement around the nucleus using a Bohr-Rutherford style diagram.

Elements
Elements are substances containing atoms of only one type. The periodic table is numbered from left to right and divided into families sharing similar charges.

Families
We noted that the Alkali Metal family all have 1 electron on their outer shell. The other families have the same rule, THEY ALL HAVE THE SAME NUMBER OF ELECTRONS ON THEIR OUTER SHELL.

Atomic Number and Atomic Mass
Recall, that the Atomic number is the number of subatomic positive particles in the nucleus.
The atomic Mass is the combination of the subatomic neutrons plus the protons all in the nucleus. This gives the element it's weight.

Electrons
Electrons are negatively charge subatomic particles which, according to the bohr-rutherford model, orbit around the nucleus.

Standard Atomic Notation

The universal way to record the atomic mass and atomic number as well as the chemical symbol is:
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nuclear/nucnot.html


Subatomic Particles Mass
Protons and Neutrons have the same mass of 1 atomic unit. Whereas, electrons have a mass of 1/2000 atomic units. Obviously, the electrons wt. is significantly less than the protons and neutrons and is therefore not really a factor in the Atomic Mass.

Review Topics

All of the above is what you will be tested on plus...

1. Properties of the Atom

2. Bohr-Rutherford Diagrams

3. History of Atomic research (handout from textbook pg. 82)

4. Combining Capacity of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen ( model building activity from Friday's class - eg. Hydrogen has a combining capacity of 1 because it had only one space)

5. Electrolysis - How does it work? Which gas is "broken away" faster oxygen or hydrogen? How do you test for oxygen? How do you test for hydrogen? Word Equation for the electrolysis lab ___electricity
Water ------->Hydrogen and Oxygen

To procrastinate I have provided a great game and it's all about science. Check it out - I almost made it to the end let's see how well you guys do...
http://education.jlab.org/million/index.html

Have a wonderful long weekend and good luck studying.

Mr. Doctorow



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